education

Abstract

This paper uses a new survey to contrast the wages of genetically
identical twins with different schooling levels. Multiple measurements of
schooling levels were also collected to assess the effect of reporting
error on the estimated economic returns to schooling. The data indicate
that omitted ability variables do not bias the estimated return to
schooling upward, but that measurement error does bias it downward.
Adjustment for measurement error indicates that an additional year of
schooling increases wages by 12-l6t, a higher estimate of the economic
returns to schooling than has been previously found.

Year of Publication
1992
Number
304
Date Published
07/1992
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
American Economic Review, Vol. 84, No. 5, December, 1994
Ashenfelter, O., & Krueger, A. (1992). Estimates of the Economic Return to Schooling from a New Sample of Twins. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01hd76s007p (Original work published July 1992)
Working Papers
Keywords
Abstract

This paper quantities the extent to which the rise in the measured
return to education between I979 and 2000 is reflecting a change in the
causal effect of education on labor market eamings. The conceptual issues
are formalized in a two-factor model of ability. schooling and eamings that
allows heterogeneity in absolute and comparative advantage across the
population. ln particular, the framework implies that a rise in the true return
to education will increase the degree of convexity of the relationship
between eamings and years of education for a fixed cohort of individuals.
Permanent differences in the levels of the eamings-schooling relationship
across cohorts will arise if the mapping between schooling and ability differs
across cohorts. These implications of the two-factor model allow the
identification of changes in the causal effect of education over time and
across cohorts.

Year of Publication
2001
Number
456
Date Published
08/2001
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
8365
Deschenes, O. (2001). Unobserved Ability, Comparative Advantage, and the Rising Return to Education in the United States: A Cohort-Based Approach. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp018p58pc95h (Original work published August 2001)
Working Papers
Abstract

During the Vietnam draft priority for military service was randomly
assigned to draft-age men in a series of lotteries. However, many men
managed to avoid military service by enrolling in school and obtaining an
educational deferment. This paper uses the draft lottery as a natural
experiment to estimate the return to education and the veteran premium.
Estimates are based on special extracts of the Current Population Survey
that the Census Bureau assembled for 1979 and 1981-85. The results suggest
that an extra year of schooling acquired in response to the lottery is
associated with 6.6 percent higher weekly earnings. This figure is about
10 percent higher the OLS estimate of the return to education for this
sample, which suggests there is little ability bias in conventional
estimates of the return to education. Our findings are robust to a variety
of "alternative assumptions about the effect of veteran status on earnings.

Year of Publication
1991
Number
290
Date Published
08/1991
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
NBER Working Paper No. 4067, May, 1992
Angrist, J., & Krueger, A. (1991). Estimating the Payoff to Schooling Using the Vietnam-era Draft Lottery. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01cf95jb47d (Original work published August 1991)
Working Papers
Abstract

This paper estimates the effects of school quality -- measured by the
pupil-teacher ratio, the average term length, and the relative pay of
teachers -- on the rate of return to education for men born between 1920 and
1949. Using earnings data from the 1980 Census, we find that men who were
educated in states with higher quality schools have a higher return to
additional years of schooling, holding constant their current state of
residence, their state of birth, the average return to education in the
region where they currently reside, and other factors. A decrease in the
pupil-teacher ratio from 30 to 25, for example, is associated with a 0.4
percentage point increase in the rate of return to education. The estimated
relationship between the return to education and measures of school quality
is similar for blacks and whites. Since improvements in school quality for
black students were mainly driven by political and judicial pressures, we
argue that the evidence for blacks reinforces a causal interpretation of the
link between school quality and earnings. We also find that returns to
schooling are higher for students educated in states with a higher fraction
of female teachers, and in states with higher average teacher education.
Holding constant school quality measures, however, we find no evidence that
parental income or education affects state-level rates of return.

Year of Publication
1990
Number
265
Date Published
05/1990
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 100, No. 1, 1992
Krueger, A., & Card, D. (1990). Does School Quality Matter? Returns to Education and the Characteristics of Public Schools in the United States. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01js956f81r (Original work published May 1990)
Working Papers
Keywords
Abstract

It is frequently asserted that a college's female undergraduate enrollment in the sciences and engineering can be increased by raising female representation on the faculties in these areas. Despite the widespread acceptance of this proposition, it does not appear to have been subjected to any kind of serious statistical analysis. In this paper, we assemble panel data from three rather different educational institutions, and use them to examine the relationship between the gender composition of the students in an academic department and the gender composition of its faculty at the time the students were choosing their majors. We find no evidence for the conventional view that an increase in the share of females on a department's faculty leads to an increase in its share of female majors.

Year of Publication
1993
Number
321
Date Published
10/1993
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
Industrial and Labor Relations Review, Vol. 48, No. 3, April 1995
Rosen, H., & Canes, B. (1993). Following in Her Footsteps? Women’s College Majors and Faculty Gender Composition*. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01sj139194t (Original work published October 1993)
Working Papers
Abstract

This paper reviews and interprets the literature on the effect of
school resources on students‘ eventual earnings and educational
attainment. In addition, new evidence is presented on the impact
of the great disparity in school resources between black and white
students in North and South Carolina that existed in the first half
of the 20th century, and the subsequent narrowing of these resource
disparities. Following birth cohorts over time, gaps in earnings
and educational attainment for blacks and whites in the Carolinas
tend to mirror the gaps in school resources.

Year of Publication
1996
Number
366
Date Published
07/1996
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol 10 No . 4, Fall 1996.
Krueger, A., & Card, D. (1996). School Resources and Student Outcomes: An Overview of the Literature and New Evidence from North and South Carolina. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01dz010q05z (Original work published July 1996)
Working Papers
Author
Keywords
Abstract

This paper reinvestigates the evidence on the impact of the minimum wage on
employment in Puerto Rico. The strongest evidence that the minimum wage had a negative
effect on employment comes from an aggregate time series analysis. The weakest evidence
comes from cross-industry analyses. The main finding of the paper, however, is that the
statistical evidence of a negative employment effect of the minimum wage in Puerto Rico is
surprisingly fragile.

Year of Publication
1994
Number
330
Date Published
05/1994
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
In Solomon Polachek (ed.) Research in Labor Economics, Vol. 14, (Greenwich, CT:JAI Press, 1995)
Krueger, A. (1994). The Effect of the Minimum Wage When It Really Bites: A Reexamination of the Evidence from Puerto Rico. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp013t945q78d (Original work published May 1994)
Working Papers
Author
Abstract

This paper evaluates evidence on the effectiveness of elementary and secondary schooling in the
U.S. Contrary to popular perception, most standardized test scores have not declined in the last
quarter century, and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) data show a
modest upward trend. In addition, school spending per pupil and NAEP scores exhibit a positive
correlation in the aggregate data. A review of the Tennessee Student-Teacher Achievement Ratio
(STAR) experiment indicates that students who were randomly assigned to smaller classes
performed better on standardized tests. Both the aggregate NAEP data and the STAR experiment
suggest that a 7 student reduction in class size is associated with a 5 to 8 percentile point increase
in test scores, on average. Evidence also suggests that students from low socioeconomic status
families learn just as much during the school year as students from high socioeconomic status
families, but students from low socioeconomic status families fall behind during the summer
months. Finally, the earnings of high school graduates relative to high school dropouts increased
substantially between 1979 and 1996, suggesting that high schools provide skills that are valued
by the labor market.

Year of Publication
1998
Number
395
Date Published
01/1998
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, vol. 4, no. 1, March 1998
Krueger, A. (1998). Reassessing the View that American Schools Are Broken. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp014b29b597q (Original work published January 1998)
Working Papers
Keywords
Abstract

This paper summarizes and tries to reconcile evidence from the microeconometric and empirical
macro growth literatures on the effect of schooling on income and GDP growth. Much
microeconometric evidence suggests that education is an important causal determinant of income
for individuals within countries. At a national level, however, recent studies have found that
increases in educational attainment are unrelated to economic growth. This discrepancy appears to
be a result of the high rate of measurement error in first-differenced cross-country education data.
Afier accounting for measurement error, the effect of changes in educational attainment on income
growth in cross-country data is at least as great as microeconometric estimates of the rate of return
to years of schooling. Another finding of the macro growth literature -- that economic growth
depends positively on the initial stock of human capital -- is not robust when the assumption of a
constant-coefficient model is relaxed.

Year of Publication
2000
Number
429
Date Published
01/2000
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 39, No. 4, December 2001
Lindahl, M., & Krueger, A. (2000). Education for Growth: Why and For Whom?. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp011831cj939 (Original work published January 2000)
Working Papers
Abstract

This paper presents evidence showing that individuals’ season of birth is
related to their educational attainment because of the combined effects of
school start age policy and compulsory school attendance laws. In most school
districts, individuals born in the beginning of the year start school at a
slightly older age, and therefore are eligible to drop out of school after
completing fewer years of schooling than individuals born near the end of the
year. Our estimates suggest that as many as 25 percent of potential dropouts
remain in school because of compulsory schooling laws. We estimate the impact
of compulsory schooling on earnings by using quarter of birth as an
instrumental variable for education in an earnings equation. This provides a
valid identification strategy because date of birth is unlikely to be
correlated with omitted earnings determinants. The instrumental variables
estimate of the rate of return to education is remarkably close to the
ordinary least squares estimate, suggesting that there is little ability bias
in conventional estimates of the return to education. The results also imply
that individuals who are compelled to attend school longer than they desire by
compulsory schooling laws reap a substantial return for their extra schooling.

Year of Publication
1990
Number
273
Date Published
06/1990
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 106, No. 4, November 1991
Angrist, J., & Krueger, A. (1990). Does Compulsory School Attendance Affect Schooling and Earnings?. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp013197xm05q (Original work published June 1990)
Working Papers