# David Card

First name
David
Last name
Card
Author
Keywords
Abstract

This paper analyses the distributional impact of the 1990 and 1991
increases in the federal minimum wage. The rise in the federal minimum wage
had very different impacts across states, depending on state-specific minimum
wage floors and the overall level of wages in each state. In states with a
higher fraction of workers affected by the minimum wage change, we find that
the minimum wage hike generated significant increases in the lower percentiles
of wages, and significant reductions in wage dispersion. The higher minimum
wage also led to increases in the lower percentiles of the family earnings
distribution, and a narrowing of the dispersion in family earnings. We find
some evidence that the increase in the minimum wage lowered poverty rates for
families with some attachment to the labor market.

Year of Publication
1994
Number
333
Date Published
10/1994
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
7964
Krueger, A. ., & Card, D. . (1994). A Living Wage? The Effects of the Minimum Wage on the Distribution of Wages, the Distribution of Family Earnings, and Poverty. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp013484zg89t (Original work published October 1994)
Working Papers
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This paper presents new evidence on the relevance of nominal
contracting models for employment determination in long term union
contracts. A key aspect of these contracts, much emphasized in the
macroeconomics literature, is the predetermined nature of nominal
wages. Real wage rates therefore contain unanticipated components
that reflect unexpected changes in prices and the degree of
indexation in the contract. The empirical analysis, based on a
sample of 1300 indexed and non-indexed contracts from the Canadian
manufacturing sector, indicates that unexpected real wage changes are
associated with systematic employment responses in the opposite
direction. I conclude that nominal contracting provisions play a
potentially important role in the cyclical properties and persistence
of employment in the union sector.

Year of Publication
1988
Number
232
Date Published
05/1988
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
American Economic Review, 80, September 1990
Card, D. . (1988). Unexpected Inflation, Real Wages, and Employment Determination in Union Contracts. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01cv43nw81x (Original work published May 1988)
Working Papers
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We study strike durations and outcomes for some 2000 disputes that occurred
between 1881 and 1886. Most post-strike bargaining settlements in the 1880s fell
into one of two categories: either a union "victory", characterized by a
significant wage gain or hours cut, or a union "defeat", characterized by the
resumption of work at the previous terms of employment. We find a strong
negative relation between strike duration and the value of the settlement to
workers, reflecting the declining probability of a union victory among longer
strikes. For the subset of strikes over wage increases we estimate a structural
model that includes equations for the capitulation times of the two parties and
a specification of the wage increase conditional on a union victory. We find
strong support for a relative bargaining power hypothesis: factors that enhance
the workers’ ability to withstand a strike tend to raise the wage increase in the
event of a successful strike, while factors that enhance the employer's ability
to withstand a strike tend to lower the wage increase in the event of a union
victory.

Year of Publication
1992
Number
294
Date Published
01/1992
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
Journal of Labor Economics, 13 , January 1995
Olson, C. ., & Card, D. . (1992). Bargaining Power, Strike Durations, and Wage Outcomes: An Analysis of Strikes in the 1880s. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01xs55mc07s (Original work published January 1992)
Working Papers
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This paper reviews Robert Lalonde's contributions to labor economics and introduces a set of papers that were written in his honor and presented to him in the spring of 2015 at a conference held in his honor in Chicago.

Year of Publication
2017
Number
610
Date Published
05/2017
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
9996
Ashenfelter, O. ., & Card, D. . (2017). Essays in Honor of Robert J. Lalonde. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01ww72bf01z (Original work published May 2017)
Working Papers
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This paper presents a series of event studies that measure the stock market
reaction to news about the minimum wage. We use two samples of firms: a broad
sample of companies in low-wage industries; and a narrow sample of firms that
mentioned the cost effects of the federal minimum wage in their recent annual
reports. Our analysis of legislative events leading up to the 1989 amendments
to the Fair Labor Standards Act shows little systematic effect on the market
value of low-wage companies. We also analyze a series of events associated with
a confidential memo from the Secretary of Labor that was leaked in mid-1993.
Here, the stock market reactions suggest that news of a possible change in the
minimum wage may have a modest effect on value of low-wage companies.

Year of Publication
1994
Number
337
Date Published
11/1994
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
7970
Krueger, A. ., & Card, D. . (1994). The Effect of the Minimum Wage on Shareholder Wealth. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp019p290933r (Original work published November 1994)
Working Papers
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The lifecycle labor supply model has been proposed as an
explanation for various dimensions of labor supply, including
movements over the business cycle, changes with age, and within-
person variation over time. According to the model, all of these
elements are tied together by a combination of intertemporal
substitution effects and wealth effects. This paper offers an
assessment of the model's ability to explain the main components of
labor supply, focusing on microeconometric evidence for men.

Year of Publication
1990
Number
269
Date Published
09/1990
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
In Christopher Sims, editor, Advances in Econometrics, Sixth World Congress, New York: Cambridge University Press 1994
Card, D. . (1990). Intertemporal Labor Supply: An Assessment. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01r494vk188 (Original work published September 1990)
Working Papers
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This paper presents results from an experimental evaluation of an earnings supplement program offered
to long-term welfare recipients in two Canadian provinces. The program -- known as the Self-Sufficiency
Project - provides a supplement equal to one-half of the difference between an earnings target ($2,500 or$3083 per month, Canadian dollars, depending on the province) and the individual's actual earnings. The
supplement is similar to a negative income tax with two important differences: (1) eligibility is limited to
long-term welfare recipients who ﬁnd a full-time job (30 hours per week or more); and (2) the supplement
payment is based on individual earnings rather than family income. The evaluation is based on a
randomized design that will follow 6,000 individuals for ﬁve years. Early ﬁndings for a ﬁrst cohort of
2,000 individuals observed over 18 months of program eligibility suggest that the ﬁnancial incentives of
the Self-Sufﬁciency Program signiﬁcantly increase labor market attachment and signiﬁcantly reduce
welfare participation.

Year of Publication
1996
Number
359
Date Published
03/1996
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
SDRC, February, 1996, Research in Labor Economics, forthcoming
Robins, P. ., & Card, D. . (1996). Do Financial Incentives Encourage Welfare Recipients to Work? Early Findings from the Canadian Self Sufficiency Project. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01t148fh15n (Original work published March 1996)
Working Papers
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It has become standard practice to use local linear regressions in regression discontinuity designs.
This paper highlights that the same theoretical arguments used to justify local linear regression suggest
that alternative local polynomials could be preferred. We show in simulations that the local linear estimator
is often dominated by alternative polynomial specifications. Additionally, we provide guidance on the
selection of the polynomial order. The Monte Carlo evidence shows that the order-selection procedure
(which is also readily adapted to fuzzy regression discontinuity and regression kink designs) performs
well, particularly with large sample sizes typically found in empirical applications.

Year of Publication
2018
Number
622
Date Published
08/2018
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
10656
Pei, Z. ., Card, D. ., Lee, D. ., & Weber, A. . (2018). Local Polynomial Order in Regression Discontinuity Designs. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01v118rh27h (Original work published August 2018)
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Year of Publication
1993
Number
310
Date Published
01/1993
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings, 83 May, 1993
Krueger, A. ., & Card, D. . (1993). Trends in Relative Black/White Earnings Revisited. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01nz805z69d (Original work published January 1993)
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Abstract

Between 1960 and 1980 the gap in earnings between black and white
males narrowed by 15 percent. A detailed analysis of 1960, 1970, and 1980
were largely responsible for black workers’ relative earnings gains. One
explanation for these higher returns is that they reflect the market
valuation of higher-quality schooling available to later cohorts of black
students. To investigate the role of school quality in the convergence of
black and white earnings, we have assembled data on three aspects of school
quality -- pupil/teacher ratios, annual teacher pay, and term length -- for
black and white schools in l8 segregated states from 1915 to 1966. The
education for men from different cohorts and states. Improvements in the
relative quality of black schools explain roughly 20 percent of the
narrowing of the black-white earnings gap in this period.

Year of Publication
1990
Number
272
Date Published
10/1990
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 106, No. 1, November, 1991
Krueger, A. ., & Card, D. . (1990). School Quality and Black-White Relative Earnings: A Direct Assessment. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01tx31qh702 (Original work published October 1990)
Working Papers