Cecilia Rouse

First name
Cecilia
Last name
Rouse

Author
Year of Publication
1993
Abstract

Throughout the late 1970s and the early 1980s, over 50% of all first-time first-year college
students started in a junior college. Despite such a large role in higher education, we know
relatively little about how well they serve their role of providing an education for all who want to
attend college. Junior colleges affect educational attainment in two ways. First, the schools provide
a place in higher education for those who might not have otherwise attended college, the
democratization qfiecr; however, they also draw away some students who might otherwise have
attended a four-year college, the diversion efiect. The democratization effect is nonnegative;
however the effect of diversion on educational attainment is unclear, a priori, as some students might
be better off starting in a four-year school.
This paper attempts to sort out the overall impact of junior colleges on educational
attainment. I use the natural experiment arising from variation in access to junior colleges across
cities and states to address the problem of self-selection into types of colleges. This approach is
implemented by an instrumental variables strategy in which distance to junior college and average
state two-year college tuition are used to instrument for junior college attendance in an educational
attainment equation. The results suggest that on net junior colleges increase total years of schooling,
but do not change the likelihood of attaining a BA.

Number
313
Date Published
02/1993
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
Journal of Business and Economic Statistics, April, 1995, Vol. 13., No. 2
Rouse, C. (1993). Democratization or Diversion? The Effect of Community Colleges on Educational Attainment. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp014q77fr34z (Original work published 02/1993AD)
Working Papers

Author
Year of Publication
1995
Abstract

Economic Returns to Community College

Date Published
2012-01-20
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
7805
Rouse, C. (1995). Returns. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp015138jd87v (Original work published 2012-01-20)
Data sets

Year of Publication
1993
Keywords
Abstract

ln CPS data, the 20% of the civilian labor force with 1-3 years of college earn 15% more
than high school graduates. We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School
Class of I972 which includes postsecondary transcript data and the NLS Y to study the distinct returns
to 2-year and 4-year college attendance and degree completion. Controlling for family income and
measured ability, wage differentials for both 2-year and 4-year college credits are positive and
similar. We find that the average 2-year and 4-year college student earned roughly 5% more than
similar high school graduates for every year of credits completed. Second, average bachelor and
associate degree recipients did not earn significantly more than those with similar numbers of college
credits and no degree, suggesting that the credentialling effects of these degree are small. We report
similar results from the NLSY and the CPS.
In addition to controlling for family background and ability measures, we pursue two IV
strategies to identify measurement error and selection bias. First, we use self-reported education as
an instrument for transcript reported education. Second, we use public tuition and distance from the
closest 2-year and 4-year colleges as instruments, which we take as orthogonal to schooling
measurement error and other unobserved characteristics of college students. Although research over
the past decade has been preoccupied with selection bias, the two biases roughly cancel each other,
suggesting that the results above are, if anything, understated.

Number
311
Date Published
01/1993
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
American Economic Review, Vol. 83, No. 3
Kane, T., & Rouse, C. (1993). Labor Market Returns to Two- And Four-Year College: Is A Credit a Credit And Do Degrees Matter?. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp0102870v868 (Original work published 01/1993AD)
Working Papers

Author
Year of Publication
1997
Abstract

Milwaukee Parental Choice Program Evaluation

Date Published
2012-01-20
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
7809
Rouse, C. (1997). Milwaukee. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01dj52w470z (Original work published 2012-01-20)
Data sets

Author
Year of Publication
1996
Abstract

In 1990, Wisconsin became the first state in the country to provide vouchers to low income
students to attend non-sectarian private schools. In this paper, I use a variety of estimation strategies
and samples to estimate the effect of the program on math and reading scores. First, since schools
selected students randomly from among their applicants if the school was oversubscribed, I compare
the academic achievement of students who were selected to those who were not selected. Second,
I present instrumental variables estimates of the effectiveness of private schools (relative to public
schools) using the initial selection as an instrumental variable for attendance at a private school.
Finally, I used a fixed-effects strategy to compare students enrolled in the private schools to a sample
of students from the Milwaukee public schools. I find that the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program
appears to have had a positive effect on the math achievement of those who attended a private
school; but had no benefits for reading scores. I have found the results to be fairly robust to data
imputations and sample attrition, however these limitations should be kept in mind when
interpreting the results.

Number
371
Date Published
12/1996
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 113, No. 2, May 1998
Rouse, C. (1996). Private School Vouchers and Student Achievement: An Evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp0144558d303 (Original work published 12/1996AD)
Working Papers

Author
Year of Publication
2001
Abstract

Data from "Wage Effects of Unions and Industrial Councils in South Africa"

Date Published
2012-01-20
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
7810
Rouse, C. (2001). Unions_sa. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp011831cj968 (Original work published 2012-01-20)
Data sets

Year of Publication
1999
Abstract

We propose a general method of moments technique to identify measurement error in self-reported
and transcript-reported schooling using differences in wages, test scores and other covariates to discern the
relative verity of each measure. We also explore the implications of such reporting errors for both OLS and
IV estimates of the returns to schooling. The results cast a new light on two common findings in the
extensive literature on the retums to schooling: “sheepskin effects” and the recent IV estimates, relying on
“natural experiments” to identify the payoff to schooling. First, respondents tend to self-report degree
attainment much more accurately than they report educational attainment not corresponding with degree
attainment. For instance, we estimate that more than 90 percent of those with associate’s or bachelor’s
degrees accurately report degree attainment, while only slightly over half of those with l or 2 years of college
credits accurately report their educational attainment. As a result, OLS estimates tend to understate returns
per year of schooling and overstate degree effects. Second, because the measurement error in educational
attainment is non-classical, IV estimates also tend to be biased, although the magnitude of the bias depends
upon the nature of the measurement error in the region of educational attainment affected by the instrument.

Number
419
Date Published
06/1999
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
8345
Staiger, D., Kane, T., & Rouse, C. (1999). Estimating Returns to Schooling When Schooling is Misreported. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01vm40xr59g (Original work published 06/1999AD)
Working Papers

Author
Year of Publication
1998
Abstract

Ashenfelter and Rouse Twinsburg Data

Date Published
2012-01-23
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
7811
Rouse, C. (1998). Twins. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01rv042t084 (Original work published 2012-01-23)
Data sets

Year of Publication
1994
Abstract

In "The Varied Economic Returns to Postsecondary Education: New Evidence from the
Class of 1972", an article recently published in the Journal of Human Resources (Volume 28,
no. 2, pp. 365-382), Norton Grubb reaches two main conclusions: (1) students who enroll in
two-year colleges without completing degrees earn no more than comparable high school
graduates; and (2) degrees from two-year colleges and vocational and technical institutes only
indirectly lead to higher earnings by providing students with access to jobs in which they can
accumulate experience and on-the-job training (i.e., access to "careers" instead of "jobs"). Given
that roughly half of those entering college today do so at community colleges and that roughly
a fifth of federal Pell Grant subsidies are spent at these institutions, such results are quite
provocative.
However, in this comment we show that several of the variables used in Grubb’s paper
are severely mismeasured and that, when they are corrected with reasonable alternatives, his
conclusions no longer receive empirical support. On the contrary, even those who enter but fail
to complete degrees at community colleges do seem to earn significantly more than similar high
school graduates. Further, controlling for work experience has relatively little effect on the
estimated returns.

Number
326
Date Published
01/1994
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 30, No. 1, Winter 1995
Kane, T., & Rouse, C. (1994). Comment on W. Norton Grubb, "The Varied Economic Returns to Postsecondary Education: New Evidence from the Class of 1972". Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01bk128990w (Original work published 01/1994AD)
Working Papers