Cecilia Rouse

First name
Cecilia
Last name
Rouse
Abstract
In this paper we take a “market-based” approach to examine whether increased school expenditures
are valued by potential residents and whether the current level of public school provision is inefficient. We
do so by employing an instrumental variables strategy to estimate the effect of state education aid on
residential property values. We find evidence that, on average, additional state aid is valued by potential
residents and that school districts appear to spend efficiently or, if anything, underspend. We also find that
school districts spend less efficiently in areas in which they face little or no competition from other public
schools, in large districts, and in areas in which residents are poor or less educated. One interpretation of
these results is that increased competition has the potential to increase school efficiency in some areas.
Year of Publication
2000
Number
438
Date Published
04/2000
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
Journal of Public Economics, volume 88 (2004) pp.1747-1769
Barrow, L., & Rouse, C. (2000). Using Market Valuation to Assess the Importance and Efficiency of Public School Spending. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp0102870v85m (Original work published 04/2000AD)
Working Papers
Abstract
In this paper we set out a simple model of optimal schooling investments that
emphasizes the interaction between schooling choices and income determination; and
estimate it using a fresh sample of data on over 700 identical twins. According to the model,
equally able individuals from the same family should attain the same observed schooling
levels, apart from random errors of optimization or measurement. A variety of direct and
indirect tests provides no evidence against this hypothesis.
We estimate an average return to schooling of 10% for genetically identical
individuals, but estimated returns are slightly higher for less able individuals. Unlike the
results in Ashenfelter and Krueger (1994), which were based on a much smaller sample, we
estimate that schooling is positively correlated with ability level, so that simple cross-section
estimates are slightly upward biased. Taken together these empirical results imply that
more able individuals attain more schooling because they face lower marginal costs of
schooling, not because they obtain higher marginal benefits. The results stand in sharp
contrast to recent claims that genetic factors predetermine education and income, and that
such differences are not amenable to alteration by public or private choices.
Year of Publication
1996
Number
365
Date Published
07/1996
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 113, No. 1, February, 1998
Ashenfelter, O., & Rouse, C. (1996). Income, Schooling, and Ability: Evidence from a New Sample of Twins. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01z316q158c (Original work published 07/1996AD)
Working Papers
Abstract
One of the best documented relationships in economics is the link between education and
income: higher educated people have higher incomes. Advocates argue that education provides
skills, or human capital, that raises an individual‘s productivity. Critics argue that the documented
relationship is not causal. Education does not generate higher incomes; instead, individuals with
higher ability receive more education and more income. This essay reviews the evidence on the
relationship between education and income. We focus on recent studies that have attempted to
determine the casual effect of education on income by either comparing income and education
differences within families or using exogenous determinants of schooling in what are sometimes
called “natural experiments.” In addition, we assess the potential for education to reduce income
disparities by presenting evidence on the return to education for people of differing family
backgrounds and measured ability.
The results of all these studies are surprisingly consistent: they indicate that the return to
schooling is not caused by an omitted correlation between ability and schooling. Moreover, we find
no evidence that the return to schooling differs significantly by family background or by the
measured ability of the student.
Year of Publication
1998
Number
407
Date Published
11/1998
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 115, No. 3, Aug.ust 2000
Ashenfelter, O., & Rouse, C. (1998). Schooling, Intelligence, and Income in America: Cracks in the Bell Curve. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp013r074t94j (Original work published 11/1998AD)
Working Papers
Abstract
Economists attempting to explain the widening of the black-white wage gap in the late 1970's by
differences in school quality have been faced the problem that recent data reveal virtually no gap in the
quality of schools attended by blacks and whites using a variety of measures. In this paper, we re-
examine racial differences in school quality. We begin by considering the effects of using the pupil-
teacher ratio, rather than the school's average class size, in an education production function since the
pupil-teacher ratio is a rough proxy, at best. Second, we consider the importance of using actual class
size rather than school-level measures of class size.
We find that while the pupil-teacher ratio and average class size are correlated, the pupil-teacher
ratio is systematically less than or equal to the average class size. Mathematically, part of the difference
is due to the intraschool allocation of teachers to classes. As a result, while the pupil-teacher ratio
suggests no black-white differences in class size, measures of the school's average class size suggest that
blacks are in larger classes. Further, the two measures result in differing estimates of the importance of
class size in an education production function. We also conclude that school level measures may obscure
important within-school variation in class size due to the small class sizes for compensatory education.
Since black students are more likely to be assigned to compensatory education classes, a kind of
aggregation bias results. We find that not only are blacks in schools with larger average class sizes, but
they are also in larger classes within schools, conditional on class type. The intraschool class size patterns
suggest that using within-school variation in education production functions is not a perfect solution to
aggregation problems because of non-random assignment of students to classes of differing sizes.
However, once the selection problem has been addressed, it appears that smaller classes at the eighth
grade lead to larger test score gains from eighth to tenth grade and that differences in class size can
explain approximately 15 percent of the black-white difference in educational achievement.
Year of Publication
1995
Number
344
Date Published
06/1995
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
Journal of Urban Economics, Volume 50, 2001
Boozer, M., & Rouse, C. (1995). Intraschool Variation in Class Size: Patterns and Implications. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01x059c733k (Original work published 06/1995AD)
Working Papers
Author
Abstract
Data from Boozer & Rouse Journal of Urban Economics
Year of Publication
2001
Date Published
2012-01-20
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
7799
Rouse, C. (2001). njteach. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp018s45q878b (Original work published 2012-01-20)
Data sets
Abstract
Discrimination against women has been alleged in hiring practices for many
occupations, but it is extremely difficult to demonstrate sex-biased hiring. A change in the
way symphony orchestras recruit musicians provides an unusual way to test for sex-biased
hiring. To overcome possible biases in hiring, most orchestras revised their audition policies
in the 1970s and 1980s. A major change involved the use of “blind” auditions with a
“screen” to conceal the identity of the candidate from the jury. Female musicians in the top
five symphony orchestras in the United States were less than 5% of all players in 1970 but are
25% today. We ask whether women were more likely to be advanced and/ or hired with the
use of “blind” auditions. Using data from actual auditions in an individual fixed-effects
framework, we find that the screen increases — by 50% — the probability a woman will be
advanced out of certain preliminary rounds. The screen also enhances, by severalfold, the
likelihood a female contestant will be the winner in the final round. Using data on orchestra
personnel, the switch to “blind” auditions can explain between 30% and 55% of the increase
in the proportion female among new hires and between 25% and 46% of the increase in the
percentage female in the orchestras since 1970.
Year of Publication
1997
Number
376
Date Published
01/1997
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
The American Economic Review, Vol. 90, No. 4, September, 2000
Goldin, C., & Rouse, C. (1997). Orchestrating Impartiality: The Impact of 'Blind' Auditions on Female Musicians. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01ns064602n (Original work published 01/1997AD)
Working Papers
Author
Abstract
Throughout the late 1970s and the early 1980s, over 50% of all first-time first-year college
students started in a junior college. Despite such a large role in higher education, we know
relatively little about how well they serve their role of providing an education for all who want to
attend college. Junior colleges affect educational attainment in two ways. First, the schools provide
a place in higher education for those who might not have otherwise attended college, the
democratization qfiecr; however, they also draw away some students who might otherwise have
attended a four-year college, the diversion efiect. The democratization effect is nonnegative;
however the effect of diversion on educational attainment is unclear, a priori, as some students might
be better off starting in a four-year school.
This paper attempts to sort out the overall impact of junior colleges on educational
attainment. I use the natural experiment arising from variation in access to junior colleges across
cities and states to address the problem of self-selection into types of colleges. This approach is
implemented by an instrumental variables strategy in which distance to junior college and average
state two-year college tuition are used to instrument for junior college attendance in an educational
attainment equation. The results suggest that on net junior colleges increase total years of schooling,
but do not change the likelihood of attaining a BA.
Year of Publication
1993
Number
313
Date Published
02/1993
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
Journal of Business and Economic Statistics, April, 1995, Vol. 13., No. 2
Rouse, C. (1993). Democratization or Diversion? The Effect of Community Colleges on Educational Attainment. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp014q77fr34z (Original work published 02/1993AD)
Working Papers
Author
Abstract
Economic Returns to Community College
Year of Publication
1995
Date Published
2012-01-20
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
7805
Rouse, C. (1995). Returns. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp015138jd87v (Original work published 2012-01-20)
Data sets