Alan Krueger

First name
Alan
Last name
Krueger
Abstract

This paper examines the effect of technological change and other factors on the relative demand
for workers with different education levels and on the recent growth of U.S. educational wage
differentials. A simple supply-demand framework is used to interpret changes in the relative quantities,
wages, and wage bill shares of workers by education in the aggregate U.S. labor market in each decade
since 1940 and over the 1990 to 1995 period. The results suggest that the relative demand for college
graduates grew more rapidly on average during the past twenty-five years (1970-95) than during the
previous three decades (1940-70). The increased rate of growth of relative demand for college graduates
beginning in the 1970s did not lead to an increase in the college/high school wage differential until the
1980s because the growth in the supply of college graduates increased even more sharply in the 1970s
before returning to historical levels in the 1980s. The acceleration in demand shifts for more-skilled
workers in the 1970s and 1980s relative to the 1960s is entirely accounted for by an increase in within-
industry changes in skill utilization rather than between-industry employment shifts. Industries with large
increases in the rate of skill upgrading in the 1970s and 1980s versus the 1960s are those with greater
growth in employee computer usage, more computer capital per worker, and larger shares of computer
investment as a share of total investment. The results suggest that the spread of computer technology
may "explain" as much as 30 to 50 percent of the increase in the rate of growth of the relative demand
for more-skilled workers since 1970.

Year of Publication
1997
Number
377
Date Published
03/1997
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 113, No. 4, November 1998
Autor, D. ., Krueger, A. ., & Katz, L. . (1997). Computing Inequality: Have Computers Changed the Labor Market?. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01qb98mf459 (Original work published March 1997)
Working Papers
Abstract

We estimate the monetary return to attending a highly selective college using the College and Beyond (C&B) Survey linked to Detailed Earnings Records from the Social Security Administration (SSA). This paper extends earlier work by Dale and Krueger (2002) that examined the relationship between the college that students attended in 1976 and the earnings they self-reported reported in 1995 on the C&B follow-up survey. In this analysis, we use administrative earnings data to estimate the return to various measures of college selectivity for a more recent cohort of students: those who entered college in 1989. We also estimate the return to college selectivity for the 1976 cohort of students, but over a longer time horizon (from 1983 through 2007) using administrative data.
We find that the return to college selectivity is sizeable for both cohorts in regression models that control for variables commonly observed by researchers, such as student high school GPA and SAT scores. However, when we adjust for unobserved student ability by controlling for the average SAT score of the colleges that students applied to, our estimates of the return to college selectivity fall substantially and are generally indistinguishable from zero. There were notable exceptions for certain subgroups. For black and Hispanic students and for students who come from less-educated families (in terms of their parents’ education), the estimates of the return to college selectivity remain large, even in models that adjust for unobserved student characteristics.

Year of Publication
2011
Number
563
Date Published
02/2011
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
7961
Dale, S. B. ., & Krueger, A. . (2011). Estimating the Return to College Selectivity over the Career Using Administrative Earning Data. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01gf06g265z (Original work published February 2011)
Working Papers
Abstract

This paper presents findings from a survey of 6,025 unemployed workers who were interviewed every week for up to 24 weeks in the fall of 2009 and spring of 2010. Our main findings are: (1) the amount of time devoted to job search declines sharply over the spell of unemployment; (2) the self-reported reservation wage predicts whether a job offer is accepted or rejected; (3) the reservation wage is remarkably stable over the course of unemployment for most workers, with the notable exception of workers who are over age 50 and those who had nontrivial savings at the start of the study; (4) many workers who seek full-time work will accept a part-time job that offers a wage below their reservation wage; and (5) the amount of time devoted to job search and the reservation wage help predict early exits from Unemployment Insurance (UI).

Year of Publication
2011
Number
562
Date Published
01/2011
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
8072
Krueger, A. ., & Mueller, A. . (2011). Job Search and Job Finding in a Period of Mass Unemployment: Evidence from High-Frequency Longitudinal Data. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp014j03cz656 (Original work published January 2011)
Working Papers
Abstract

Using data from a longitudinal survey of fast food restaurants in Texas, the authors examine
the impact of recent changes in the federal minimum wage on a low-wage labor market. The authors
draw three main conclusions. first. the survey results indicate that less than 5 percent of fast food
restaurants use the new youth subminimum wage even though the vast majority paid a starting wage
below the new hourly minimum wage immediately before it went into effect. Second, although some
restaurants increased wages by an amount exceeding that necessary to comply with higher minimum
wages in both 1990 and 1991, recent increases in the federal minimum wage have greatly compressed
the distribution of starting wages in the Texas fast food industry. Third, employment increased
relatively in those firms likely to have been most affected by the 1991 minimum wage increase, while
price changes appear to be unrelated to mandated wage changes. These employment and price
changes do not seem consistent with conventional views of the effects of increases in a binding
minimum wage.

Year of Publication
1992
Number
298
Date Published
02/1992
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
Industrial and Labor Relations Review, Vol 46, No. 1, October, 1992
Krueger, A. ., & Katz, L. . (1992). The Effect of the Minimum Wage on the Fast Food Industry. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp013x816m62z (Original work published February 1992)
Working Papers
Abstract

What effect does a severe disability' have on individuals’ employment and
earnings? Has the computer revolution lessened the adverse labor market
consequences of severe disabilities? This paper investigates the labor market
effects of severe, traumatic disabilities resulting from spinal cord injuries
(SCI’s). We compare the employment experiences of a sample of individuals with
SCI’s to those of former co-workers over the same period, and to two random
samples of individuals in New Jersey. The analysis is based in large part on a
1994 telephone survey of New Jersey adults who had SCI’s within the past ten
years. Results indicate that the occurrence of an SCI causes a steep decline in
employment, hours worked, and weekly earnings, but relatively little change in
wage rates for those who work. The computer revolution has the potential to
expand employment opportunities for people with disabilities. Our results
indicate that having computer skills is associated with higher earnings, and a
faster return to work and earnings recovery, for SCI individuals, after holding
constant other variables such as education. There is no apparent earnings gap
between SCI and non-SCI computer users, whereas among those who do not use
computers at work the earnings of SCI employees lag behind those of non-SCI
employees. Despite the benefits, individuals with SCI’s are less likely to use
computers than the general population.

Year of Publication
1995
Number
349
Date Published
10/1995
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
8323
Kruse, D. ., & Krueger, A. . (1995). Labor Market Effects of Spinal Cord Injuries in the Dawn of the Computer Age. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01q237hr94c (Original work published October 1995)
Working Papers
Author
Abstract

Data: Appendix 2.2

Year of Publication
2007
Date Published
2012-09-26
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
8798
Krueger, A. . (2007). What Makes a Terrorist? Appendix 2.2. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01tq57nr05c
Data sets
Year of Publication
2001
Number
455
Date Published
08/2001
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 15, No 4, Fall 2001
Angrist, J. ., & Krueger, A. . (2001). Instrumental Variables and the Search for Identification: From Supply and Demand to Natural Experiments. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01t435gc97f (Original work published August 2001)
Working Papers
Abstract

This paper analyses the distributional impact of the 1990 and 1991
increases in the federal minimum wage. The rise in the federal minimum wage
had very different impacts across states, depending on state-specific minimum
wage floors and the overall level of wages in each state. In states with a
higher fraction of workers affected by the minimum wage change, we find that
the minimum wage hike generated significant increases in the lower percentiles
of wages, and significant reductions in wage dispersion. The higher minimum
wage also led to increases in the lower percentiles of the family earnings
distribution, and a narrowing of the dispersion in family earnings. We find
some evidence that the increase in the minimum wage lowered poverty rates for
families with some attachment to the labor market.

Year of Publication
1994
Number
333
Date Published
10/1994
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
7964
Krueger, A. ., & Card, D. . (1994). A Living Wage? The Effects of the Minimum Wage on the Distribution of Wages, the Distribution of Family Earnings, and Poverty. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp013484zg89t (Original work published October 1994)
Working Papers
Keywords
Abstract

This paper seeks to identify the characteristics of applicants to
graduate school in economics that predict successful job placement after
completion of graduate school. Although there is considerable uncertainty in
predicting the success of prospective Ph.D. students, the results indicate that
GRE scores, reference writers, and admissions committee ratings are significant
predictors of job placement.

Year of Publication
1998
Number
403
Date Published
09/1998
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
Journal of Economic Education, vol. 31, no. 1, Winter 2000
Wu, S. ., & Krueger, A. . (1998). Forecasting Successful Economics Graduate Students. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01q811kj62d (Original work published September 1998)
Working Papers
Author
Abstract

This paper reviews the theoretical arguments for and against linking
international labor standards to trade. Based on theory alone it is difficult
to generalize about the effect of labor standards on efficiency and equity.
Some economists have argued that international labor standards are merely
disguised protectionism. An evaluation of determinants of support for
legislation that would ban imports to the U.S. of goods made with child labor
provides little support for the prevailing political economy view. In
particular, Congressmen representing districts with relatively many unskilled
workers, who are most likely to compete with child labor, are less likely to
support a ban on imports made with child labor. Another finding is that the
prevalence of child labor declines sharply with national income. Lastly, an
analysis of compulsory schooling laws, which are often suggested as an
alternative to prohibiting child labor, finds a tremendous amount of
noncompliance in developing nations.

Year of Publication
1996
Number
362
Date Published
04/1996
Publication Language
eng
Citation Key
Annual World Bank Conference on Development Economics, 1996 (Washington, DC: The World Bank, 1996)
Krueger, A. . (1996). Observations on International Labor Standards and Trade. Retrieved from http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01td96k250r (Original work published April 1996)
Working Papers